This paper was focused to review the impact and potential of crossbreeding to improve the genetic potential of indigenous chicken and creation of synthetic breed in developing countries with emphasis in Ethiopia. The indigenous chicken of Ethiopia are generally characterized by poor performance in terms of egg production, small egg size, slow growth rate, late maturity, an instinctive inclination to broodiness and high mortality of chicks. On the other hand, improved exotic chickens produce a higher number of eggs and more meat than indigenous chicken ecotypes, but major challenge is a tropical climate. Chicken crossbreeding can be boost egg production, egg size, viability, growth rate, body weight, and adaptation in farm and on-station environments. Cross breeding may improve total genetic diversity by introducing new genes and genotypes into the population. The Cross breeding of indigenous breeds with exotic breeds can be a major intervention for improving productivity of family poultry production. Cross breeding can be used for producing crossbred birds, upgrading indigenous chickens or creating a new or synthetic breed that combines desirable traits from two or more breeds. It also assists in the maximization of heterosis, complementarity, and breed diversity. Cross breeding may result in the loss of the purebred indigenous chicken genetic pool, as well as the diminution or loss of distinguishing indigenous chicken features such as brooding ability, protective and survival mechanisms such as scavenging, and aggressiveness. Unorganized crossbreeding programs, a lack of crossbreeding policies, a lack of records, and insufficient financial assistance are just a few of the issues that require immediate attention in order to keep genetic improvement efforts going in developing countries like Ethiopia.
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