Apheresis is a medical technology in which the blood of an individual is passed through an apparatus that separates out one particular blood component and returns the remainder into circulation. In this review, five types of apheresis procedures were studied, which were Erythrocytapheresis, Leucocytapheresis, Plasmapheresis, Photopheresis and Plateletpheresis. The aim of this review was to present the efficacy, safety and use of apheresis procedures in the treatment of diseases associated with abnormal blood components. Erythrocytapheresisis used for blood donations and treatment of different diseases such as Polycythemia vera and severe cases of Sickle Cell Anaemia. Leukapheresis is used for separation of white blood cells and also in disease conditions such as Ulcerative colitis. Plasmapheresis is used for separating plasma from whole blood for use in the manufacture of various medications. It is also performed to remove life-threatening antibodies in the blood like in cases of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Multiple Sclerosis. Photopheresis is mainly used as an immunosuppression therapy in cases of acute and chronic graft-versus-host-disease, cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma and cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus. Plateletpheresis is used to remove platelets from the body of patients or donors for future use. Apheresis enhances the correct use of blood and blood components. It can be a valuable and safe initial treatment for a number of ailments resulting from blood component abnormalities and patients should be brought to light about these procedures before other treatment methods are introduced.
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