There are not many certain information about the effects exercise on the number and characteristics of white blood cells and the immune response in people who are physically active . Some data suggest that lymphocytes at rest and their activity are the same in sportsman and in inactive persons. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between volume and intensity in cyclists macrocycle and changes in white blood cells, neutrofiles and cortisol concentration. This knowledge will help in preventing the negative effects of fatigue and overtraining. This work is based on results on endurance test and analysis of training loads. Venous blood was used for biochemical markers. It was taken before exercise, after its completion, and after an hour of restitution. Cortisol concentration, the number of white blood cells and neutrophiles increased in response to exercise. The output level of neutrophiles, white blood cells and cortisol did not differ from their level in untrained persons. The number of white blood cells and neutrophiles after exercise was significantly higher than their level in subsequent studies in the introductory period. The results show a significant effect of adaptation to physical effort and the quality of post-exercise immune response and the appearance of the response to exercise an open window immune. Endurance training also caused a decrease in the output level of cortisol during the major races. It can also lead to lower baseline concentration of this hormone. This does not change character of the response effort, and after an hour of restitution during the major races . The increase in cortisol may increase postprandial apoptosis of white blood cells and increase the number of neutrophils. This has an influence on the immune response and the degree of regeneration of cyclists in the macrocycle.
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