It is shown that the construction of thermodynamics with a focus directly on nonequivalent systems leads to the understanding of entropy as a “thermoimpulse” — the impulse of internal motion that has lost its vector nature due to its chaos. Unlike entropy, thermoimpulse allows its diminution in adiabatic processes, which eliminates the contradiction of the principle of its increase to the laws of evolution, the threat of the “thermal death of the Universe”, Gibbs paradoxes, absolute temperatures, relativistic heat engines, etc., leaving it unshakable experimentally established laws.
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