The article presents the results of a long-term research of water ponds biocenosis in the southeastern part of Ukraine. The Department of General Biology and Aquatic Bioresources at Oles Honchar Dnipro National University specialists carried out all the researches. The paper provides a detailed analysis of hydroecological situation in the large and small water bodies, which are used for fishery purposes. It is shown that in the water bodies of different types the total environmental problems are the pollution with organic substances, eutrophication, and anthropogenic pollution with heavy metal salts. Under conditions of increased anthropogenic pressure on water bodies, the biocenoses have gradually degraded. This is manifested in the disappearance of ecologically sensitive species of hydrobionts and the dominance of species with high adaptive abilities. An important problem of current water ecosystems is also the getting and mass distribution of spontaneous fish in fish pools, which actively compete with inhabitat species for the nutrition base and spawning grounds. Separate chapters of the monograph are devoted to physiological and biochemical indicators of industrial fish species, their health status and parasite infestation. In this work the practical recommendations have been given for increasing fish productivity in reservoirs and improving their ecological status at the southeastern Ukraine.
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