The discovery of antibiotics has helped to save the lives of an uncountable number of people. Unfortunately, their misuse and other related factors have led to the emergence and development of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to public health globally and threatens the ability to treat infectious diseases. The factors that contribute for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance are complex non-prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary and human medicine is, in large part, responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Inappropriate prescription practices, inadequate education, poor drug quality, limited rapid diagnostic test facilities, poor hygiene, infection prevention and control practice are also other factors contribute for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Due to the emergency of new resistant bacteria and decrease in efficiency of treating common infectious diseases, it results in failure of microbial response to standard treatment, leading to prolonged illness, higher expenditures for health care, and an immense risk of death. Considering these serious impacts of antibiotic resistance several solutions have been proposed including antibiotic stewardship, educational program, hygiene, infection prevention and control strategy, adapting rapid methods for detecting resistance bacteria as well as developing new antibiotics and alternative therapeutic agents.
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