In the recent years one of the common causes of cancer related deaths in humans is associated with the development of gastric carcinoma leading to gastric cancer. It had long before reported that the potent agent that is intimately related with the gastric cancer is the infection of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). H. pylori infection in humans is characterised by the development of acute peptic ulcers which creates a lots of gastroenterological symptoms. Co-existence of H. pylori in the human gastric environment is well adapted by the pathogen by evading the immune responses of the host. Gastric biopsy in patients suffering from H. pylori infection reported the development of gastric lesions having the chance to proceed towards development gastric cancer. Recently it was reported that eradication of the H. pylori colonization is not possible even after continued current antibiotic treatment over long periods and even combined regimes are unsuccessful.Moreover alterations of the genetic background of the host gastric cells were also reported along with infection of H. pylori, the primary concern for the evolution of the genetically transformed cells which is the hallmark for the development of malignancy. Clinical studies have reported the limited efficacy in decreasing the incidence of gastric carcinoma even after the eradication therapy has been completed for the bacterial colonization. Research based on the biopsy specimens obtained from conventional gastric endoscopy of affected patients has revealed some genetic or epigenetic alterations in the gastric mucosa. The cause of concern to human life lies in the fact that the number of sporadic cases of primary or metachronous gastric carcinoma has increased after successful eradication.The purpose of the present review is to assess the current status of the research based on the concept of development of gastric carcinoma in association with H. pylori infection in humans and to throw some light in the remedial measures against the pathogen which is a chronic burden in the well-being of the human society.
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