The article presents the results of complex laboratory investigations on the biological and biomechanical ways of control of Melanoides tuberculata (Müller 1774) and Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) molluscs in simulated conditions close to the conditions of the cooling pond of the Zaporizhia Nuclear Power Plant. It was determined that molluscs have naturalized in the Zaporizhia Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond, quickly increased their number and created a threat to hydraulic structures. Taking into account biological features of Thiaridae mollusks and technical and ecological features of Zaporizhia NPP, we carried out a series of experiments using biological control measures (the use of predatory species of hydrobionts) and mechanical means for controlling mollusks. Representatives of different taxons of the Animalia Kingdom were selected as predatory species of hydrobionts, which potentially can consume gastropods: Mollusca, Crustaceans and Fish. It has been found experimentally that the use of marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis (Lyko, 2017), pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Botia lohachata Chaudhuri, 1912 has not given positive results in the development of measures to control the number of molluscs. Positive results were obtained in a series of experiments with predatory mollusc assassin snail Clea helena (von dem Busch, 1847), but it was noted that in the presence of more accessible feeds, assassin snail Clea helena (von dem Busch, 1847) consumes smaller quantities of Thiaridae mollusks. The most successful results we obtained in experiments with traps for molluscs. We have developed experimental constructions of traps with lower and upper inlets that act as mollusk accumulator and can be installed in the coastal zone of the reservoir and Zaporizhia NPP cooling system channels for reducing the number of reproductive individuals of Melanoides tuberculata (Müller 1774) and Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822). The most effective were the traps with the lower inlet to which the mollusks could get faster. In order to attract mollusks to traps, we have conducted studies on the use of feed baits for molluscs. Most effectively, molluscs fell into traps that contained lime feed, feedstock sunflower oil and anise oil. The most effective among mollusks was the bait with the addition of anise oil. During the exposure, traps with anise bait traps accumulated 14.1% of molluscs. The conducted researches can serve as the basis for the development of biomelioration measures aimed at reducing the negative impact of accidental introduction of new species of molluscs into technical reservoirs of strategic importance.
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